Tag: field notes

The Coding Manual for Qualitative Researchers

saldana-textThe Coding Manual gives researchers comprehensive information and examples of codes, coding, and analytic memo writing during qualitative data collection.  32 coding methods are profiled that can be applied to different kinds of research. Readers will learn how to apply codes and themes through exercises and activities. The manual includes samples of field notes, interview transcripts, and other documents. There is also a glossary of analytic recommendations. Any researcher can benefit from the vast amount of information in this book, but it’s particularly useful for those making their first attempts at analyzing qualitative data.


Saldana, J. (2010). The Coding Manual for Qualitative Researchers. London: Sage Publications Ltd.


Christine Hine on virtual ethnography’s E3 Internet

Photo from University of Surrey

The author conducts an interview with pioneering ethnographer Christine Hine. Hine discusses her theory of the E3 internet: embedded, embodied, and everyday. She also points out the challenges of researchers attempting to quantify experieneces on the web and proposes that new research strategies are needed for studying online communities and the internet as a whole. At the time of this interview, Hine was interested in following connections across sites rather than concentrating on a single online location. In true Hine form, multiple readings will likely be required to understand everything she says.


Ford, H. (2013, November 29). Christine Hine on virtual ethnography’s E3 Internet [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://ethnographymatters.net/blog/2013/11/29/christine-hine-on-virtual-ethnographys-e3-internet/.

Six ways of doing digital ethnography

After his research subjects in Madrid were unexpectedly caught up in a wave of public protests, John Postill had to quickly regroup in order to continue collecting data. In order to make sense of what he observed, Postill came up with six different ways to categorize his research, including acknowledgement and examination of viral contents,  digital technologies, and as both a single- and multi-field site. Postill’s article is meant to help other researchers find multiple ways of looking at research that takes unexpected turns, although it could also be used as a starting point for research of a group that is active in multiple online and on-ground locations.


Postill, J. (2015, January 16). 13. Six ways of doing digital ethnography [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://johnpostill.com/2015/01/16/13-six-ways-of-researching-new-social-worlds/

Writing Ethnographic Fieldnotes

Capture10This book provides practical methods for taking notes during participant observation. It includes examples of jottings, transcribing notes taken in the field and developing them into narratives, and then drawing meaning from what has been recorded. The authors also discuss ways of coding and theming field notes and how to write an ethnography. Beginning ethnographers will find a great deal of information in this that can make first attempts at research progress smoothly. Simply having examples of field notes to refer to makes this book an invaluable reference.


Emerson, R.M., Fretz, R.I., & Shaw, L.L. (2011). Writing Ethnographic Fieldnotes. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press.