The Coding Manual gives researchers comprehensive information and examples of codes, coding, and analytic memo writing during qualitative data collection. 32 coding methods are profiled that can be applied to different kinds of research. Readers will learn how to apply codes and themes through exercises and activities. The manual includes samples of field notes, interview transcripts, and other documents. There is also a glossary of analytic recommendations. Any researcher can benefit from the vast amount of information in this book, but it’s particularly useful for those making their first attempts at analyzing qualitative data.
Saldana, J. (2010). The Coding Manual for Qualitative Researchers. London: Sage Publications Ltd.
While noting the wide variety of digital technologies already in use, Hsu challenges ethnographers to go further. She describes how she uses webscraping to gather data, reveal limitations of software, and gain further information about online communities. Hsu believes the exploration of digital data gathering needs more development. In this article she provides an overview of software methods, mapping, and “seeing textures” in data. Hsu has practical examples of ways ethnographers can use technology—if they are willing to learn some new skills. Her use of mapping and geo-tagging is particularly helpful, since few online communities are confined to a limited geographic area.
Hsu, W. (2014). Digital Ethnography Toward Augmented Empiricism: A New Methodological Framework. Journal of Digital Humanities, 3(1). Retrieved from http://journalofdigitalhumanities.org/3-1/digital-ethnography-toward-augmented-empiricism-by-wendy-hsu/
This updated text includes the latest netnographic research and examples from contemporary social networks, including Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn. Kozinets includes step-by-step guidelines to help researchers get started in netnography and addresses research in areas such as geography, linguistics, addiction, and gaming. This book is a forward step in bringing attention to netnographic research and the valuable data it can provide.
Kozinets, Robert V. 2015. Netnography: Redefined. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.
This digital ethnography explores whether a social network on the dark web can overcomeㅡor avoidㅡthe constraints and affordances of traditional social networks. Gehl’s hypothesis is that power and freedom will be the same no matter where the site is; but hat the Dark Web Social Network (DWSN) is affected by both what we know about traditional networks and by public perception of the dark web. In this essay, Gehl describes the unusual technological challenges in exploring the dark web, the ethical challenges it presented, and the ways in which he protected the anonymity of his research subjects. Gehl’s research shows that being willing to stretch your knowledge of technology–and letting go of preconceived ideas–can lead you to areas of the web that are not possible for the average user.
Gehl, R. W. (2014). Power/Freedom On The Dark Web: A Digital Ethnography Of The Dark Web Social Network. New Media & Society, 1-17. doi:10.1177/1461444814554900
After his research subjects in Madrid were unexpectedly caught up in a wave of public protests, John Postill had to quickly regroup in order to continue collecting data. In order to make sense of what he observed, Postill came up with six different ways to categorize his research, including acknowledgement and examination of viral contents, digital technologies, and as both a single- and multi-field site. Postill’s article is meant to help other researchers find multiple ways of looking at research that takes unexpected turns, although it could also be used as a starting point for research of a group that is active in multiple online and on-ground locations.
Postill, J. (2015, January 16). 13. Six ways of doing digital ethnography [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://johnpostill.com/2015/01/16/13-six-ways-of-researching-new-social-worlds/